Here it is:
To do this first question, I changed the mixed numbers into improper fractions. Then, I found out the common denominator, for just the first two fractions. With those two fractions, I tried different operations, until I got to the pattern. Then you would have to see if the pattern actually works. so it's basically trial and error, for me.
On the second fraction, I did the same thing too. Except I only used the absolute value on the first fraction, to find out the pattern. This question, I had a longer time figuring out than the first one. Since the changing of signs (positive then to negative) caught me off guard. Then I remembered that a negative number, divided by a negative number is positive. Also a positive number divided by a negative number is negative. So the pattern must have been the number divided by a negative number. That gave me a clue. Sooner or later, I finally got it.
absolute value: only how far a number is from zero (eg. the absolute value of 6 is 6, and the absolute value of -6 is 6 also.
I guess that's it. I tried my best explaining this. I think that the easier question you get, the harder it is explaining it. Since there's nothing much to explain.
Have a good long weekend everyone! :D